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All natural antigens are of human origin if not stated otherwise for recombinant antigens the producent is indicated.

Starting material tested negative for HBs antigen, HCV Ab, HIV I/II Ab in tissue extract by FDA approved EIA methods. 


All antibodies raised against human antigen if not otherwise stated.
Antibodies may cross-react to homologous antigens of other species, please see linked files or send a request.

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) obtained from murine ascitic fluid or in vitro culture (marked by CC after clone name). Recombinant murine and chimeric humanized antibodies are generated in HEK293 cell line.

All antibodies may be available as whole molecules, F(ab) fragments and conjugates to biotin, HRP enzyme or fluorochromes, please inquire.


Purification methods:


— Natural antigens are normally purified by combinations of methods including salt precipitations, ultrafiltration and various chromatography approaches - this is generally described as 'Chromatography'


— Some natural antigens are purified based on their specific binding properties, described as 'Affinity'


 — Recombinant antigens are, by default, purified by affinity binding through their tag


— Monoclonal antibodies are purified either by ion exchange or affinity chromatography on microbial proteins, please refer to Data Sheet of specific lot


— Polyclonal antibodies are purified by antigen affinity adsorption and in most cases further exhausted on nonrelevant antigen adsorbents

Purity of the proteins is determined by SDS-PAGE by Laemmli, visually or by densitometry. Some proteins are heterogeneous or complex by nature and their purity does not imply a presence of single distinctive band


Quantification methods:


— OD280 is the basic method for all types of purified proteins, the specific extinction coefficient are stated in Data Sheets


— Lowrie and Bradford methods are calibrated by bovine serum albumin standard


— Immunoassays (EIA, CLIA etc) are used as additional quantification of the antigens, or the only methods if standard protein determination is not applicable for the specific material (eg crude mixtures or non-protein origin). EIAs developed in house (Xema brand) are used, if not stated otherwise. These EIA kits and detailed protocols are available on request.


Physical form, buffer composition, recommended storage conditions and shelf life may vary with specific lot of the reagent, please refer to actual Data Sheet



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